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Administration Modernization Promotes Productivity

IT management generally focuses on modernizing applications to stay competitive in the business environment. However, it’s time to also modernize administration.

Modernization efforts involve many facets, from improving UI to refactoring a database to integrating new applications. IT management means different things to different people, but it generally focuses on modernizing applications to stay competitive in the business environment. However, it’s time to also modernize administration.

Scott Forstie, DB2* for i business architect and senior technical staff member, IBM, has made shining the light on administration modernization a personal mission since 2010. While past methodologies are not wrong, he explains that it can help IT teams become more effective and productive.

“This is more about reinvigorating your processes,” Forstie explains. “I never want to tell people they’re doing things wrong. It’s more about learning what you can do differently to move administration to the next level of effectiveness.”

Enhance Your Business Management Approach

Modernizing work processes requires four conditions:

1. People are aware of better ways to work
2. People are determined to apply those ways to work
3. Specific technologies are applied
4. New practices are adopted

IT teams should start with a self-assessment before moving forward with modernization efforts. “Be true to giving yourself a fair grade,” Forstie says. “Are you proactive or reactive? If you’re reactive—and maybe you’re the most skilled and capable reactive IT staff around—ask yourself if you’d like to make your life simpler.”

While RPG is widely used, administrators who want to simplify processes should take note of SQL, now one of the most popular programming languages.

“We’ve seen SQL become adopted across the industry,” Forstie notes. “It can be executed in every interface into the IBM i OS.” SQL requires administrators and programmers to think of questions they want to ask within their enterprise to complete data analysis—which 10 users are consuming the most spool storage, for example.

Those questions must then be turned into queries. One reason SQL is prevalent is because people understand the unique value offered by its optimizer, which can be used to reduce work done by an administrator or programmer. The SQL Query Engine analyzes candidate execution plans for a given query, estimates each plan’s cost and chooses the least expensive one ( The optimizer can help users group, order, subset, transform, concatenate, substring, uppercase and lowercase data. In many cases, a single trip to the database can return data in the final form needed by the business.

IBM i Services

Administrators may be reluctant to change from green-screen command style methodologies, but even a small amount of SQL knowledge can modernize work streams. Forstie’s team creates IBM i Services, which are SQL alternatives to IBM commands and APIs, covering areas such as work, storage, spool and security management. “Clients have merely scratched the surface of not only what’s possible in these areas but also what should be managed,” he says.

When administrators add modern tooling through IBM i Access Client Solutions, even more is possible. For example, clients have used IBM i Services to automate system administration tasks that used to be done manually. Forstie shares the time he met a client to discuss administration modernization. By his second meeting with the team, they had already automated a weekly workload previously done manually at 2 a.m. The team was obviously thrilled to have achieved such improvement with little effort and no additional cost.

In addition to building IBM i Services, Forstie’s team also delivered education sessions at user-group meetings and conferences to push IBM i Services into the spotlight. Read more about this in “Scott Forstie: Transforming IT Takes More Than Technology”.

DB2 for i Services

IBM i Services provide alternatives for accessing the OS. DB2 for i Services allow users to automate the role of the database administrator—what’s now known as the database engineer. “Get Started” outlines the four categories of services.

Forstie and his database development team created a different set of services for database engineers to automate parts of their job. Because administration modernization reinvigorates, rather than replaces, operations and oversight, organizations can achieve better ROI by using tools they already have. This may require teams to be educated on the full capabilities of those existing technologies. It’s important to continue thinking of the ultimate questions their business-side colleagues want answered.

IBM i 7.3 offers the analytical support a client would want from a database on DB2 for i, so clients can do onboard operational analytics using SQL to study the artifacts of a business. DB2 Web Query already has these capabilities with many built-in consumable reports.

Strategy Flexibility

Another management offering is Administration Runtime Expert (ARE). This differs from DB2 Web Query in that you can use ARE to create a snapshot of what a proper IBM i installation looks like and ensure all is configured correctly. It’s available for IBM i 7.2 and 7.3 clients at no charge.

IBM i Access Client Solutions is also available at no charge for clients with an IBM i software maintenance contract. Access Client Solutions runs on any OS that runs Java* software, including Linux*, Mac and Windows*, and consolidates the most commonly used tasks for managing an IBM i OS into one simplified location.

IBM i Access for Web Mobile is part of the IBM i Access Family license. The solution has an SQL interface and allows users to access IBM i resources from any mobile device that supports a browser to manage jobs, messages, output queues and files, and update database records on the go.

Make Life Easier

Application developers can also benefit from administration modernization. For instance, if they successfully develop an application and all of the tests run clean, but they realize a failure at production, they’ll want to diagnose, isolate and solve that problem.

Many app developers don’t have all of the information they need to do so, however. But services that modernize application development error handling also exist.

One solution: use SQL to consume job logs at the point of failure. Or use SQL to detect lock holders at the point of failure. Highly concurrent systems are prone to have small windows where the application exposes the possibility of two conflicting work processes. See the “Application Development Example”.

SQL can also be used to examine history log and work management information as well as whether specific jobs are waiting on a job queue. Administrators can see if jobs haven’t had the chance to run yet, or whether they have been completed. Once they see this information, clients can think of periods in the past year in which work was poorly managed. “It’s time to re-examine those in the light of these new technologies and see if we have better solutions,” Forstie says. See the “Workload Performance Management Example”.

Gain New Insight

Database catalogs traditionally contain physical files with details of all of the relational database constructs in existence.

IBM i Services look and feel like traditional catalogs, but the services are implemented as SQL views built over user-defined table functions. When a user queries one of these views, the rows and columns are derived and returned to the user in real time. IBM i Services return IBM i details to the SQL user. DB2 for i catalogs also exist for the database engineer, returning statistics and operational insight into the database. IBM i clients can use SQL to leverage these powerful resources to gain business insights with minimal effort.

“We can extract useful information,” Forstie notes. “It’s fun, but we’re not just playing with technology; we’re mindful that we should be addressing business goals and extracting business value. That’s what we do.”

Work Smarter

Nearly every client Forstie has worked with has shrinking resources with raised expectations. It’s up to staff leaders to meet that challenge head on. Over the past six years he has coached clients and gathered success stories from teams that have worked more efficiently through administration modernization. To stay competitive, IT administrators must strategize ways to take advantage of the tools and services they already have access to.

To learn more, find Forstie at industry events and COMMON conferences, where he teaches audiences on modernizing their processes.

“We routinely get not only positive feedback but also the ‘Oh, I wish I had known about this months ago because you would have saved me a ton of time,’ ” Forstie says. “I love to hear that, but it gives me fuel to push harder on getting this message in the right form in front of the right people so they can take advantage of what they already own.”

Scott Forstie: Transforming IT Takes More Than Technology

Many people tasked with IBM i Systems Management are not SQL experts. When I began pushing IBM i Services into the limelight, I was met with skepticism about the likelihood that users would embrace an SQL alternative. In addition to building services, we also:

  • Delivered “how-to” education sessions at IBM i user groups and IBM Power Systems Technical University conferences, which explain the why and what, but most importantly included many working examples
  • Incorporated working examples within the IBM i Access Client Solutions Run SQL Scripts tool, which is great for anyone using SQL on IBM i
  • Collaborated with IBM colleagues, ISVs and advisory boards, some of whom built new Systems Management features into IBM i software products. For example, DB2* Web Query includes reports that can be consumed and deployed to achieve immediate improvements in Systems Management of IBM i partitions (

These efforts have yielded many smiles from happy customers and even more requests to build additional services. When deciding what will be added to DB2 for i, I look at cost, value and risk. These IBM i Services tend to be fairly inexpensive to build, in part because the IBM i OS details are well-defined. The value is something anyone reading this article could influence. Let me know what you think about what we’ve done so far and what we should do in the future. Turn to page 41 to learn how to share feedback. To see what’s hot off the press on this topic, check out the following IBM i Technology Updates wiki pages, created whenever IBM delivers a set of IBM i enhancements:

  • IBM i 7.3: Technology Refresh (TR) 2 timed enhancements:
  • IBM i 7.2: Technology Refresh (TR) 6 timed enhancements:

Visit the IBM i services page:


Workload Performance Management Example

Many difficult systems management topics are very approachable using SQL. In this example, we see how the IBM i history log can be mined for insights.

-- Compute the 10 jobs with the longest time span

WITH new_jobs(JN, job_start, from_user, sbs)

  AS (SELECT from_job, message_timestamp, from_user,

       substr(message_tokens, 59, 10)

     FROM TABLE(qsys2.history_log_info()) x

     WHERE message_id = ‘CPF1124’),

   ended_jobs(JN, job_end, from_user)

  AS (SELECT from_job, message_timestamp, from_user

     FROM TABLE(qsys2.history_log_info()) x

     WHERE message_id = ‘CPF1164’),

   top_10_jobs(SBS, JN, JLIFE)


    TIMESTAMPDIFF(4, CAST(job_end - job_start AS CHAR(22)))  

    FROM new_jobs n INNER JOIN ended_jobs e ON n.JN = e.JN


  SELECT A.* from top_10_jobs A ORDER BY JLIFE DESC;

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Legacy applications often get a bad rap, regardless of how well they address business needs and how reliable they are. This is for two main reasons:

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Management often takes a rip-and-replace approach, either by implementing a new package or by rewriting in a new language. These efforts can cost millions more than anticipated and take many more years than originally planned. More than 75 percent of these projects fail completely.

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Sponsored Advertising Content: The Importance of Bringing Your RPG Assets Forward

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Sponsored Advertising Content: The Future Is Here. Are You Ready?

IBM i shops need a portfolio of modernization instruments to help them with a variety of business and technical challenges. If their objective is to get a web interface onto all application screens as rapidly as possible, automated transformation might be the right solution. On the other hand, if their goal is to connect internal applications to customer or partner systems, or if it’s necessary to change the application workflow, then web services might be a better answer. If modernizing the RPG code is required, then RPG transformation or code analysis could be the solution.

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Vice President, Rocket Software

Dan is vice president of application development and DevOps, and chief technologist for IBM i Solutions.


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